National Implementation Summary

A Note about Court Structure: Both state courts and tribal courts vary in organizational structure, governance and court jurisdiction. The specific implementation efforts and experience of the individual court systems summarized below may reflect those variations. 

Goal of Project: The goal of Extending Project Passport has been to build upon the success of the original Project Passport to enhance full faith and credit for protection orders across jurisdictions by encouraging states and tribes to adopt a recognizable first page for orders of protection – the Passport Model Template First Page.

Implementation Status: Through regional meetings, tribal-state forums, and presentations to numerous state, national and tribal organizations, the concept of the Recognizable First Page has been introduced to all 50 states and U.S. territories. To date, approximately 38 states, the District of Columbia and one U.S. territory (Guam) have implemented a version of the Passport Model Template First Page into their orders of protection.  Tribes in at least a dozen states have implemented Passport. Other states and tribes are actively considering its adoption.

Time to Implementation: Implementation in participating state courts typically has taken one to two and one-half years.  Some state courts have taken eight years or more.  The implementation timeframe often reflects multiple levels of forms revisions, garnering support from stakeholders, and committee and court approval processes.  Tribal court implementation typically has taken a few days to a few months. Shorter timeframes often are the result of direct implementation by the Chief Judge of the tribal court.  Longer time periods often reflect the need to acquire Tribal Council or Elders approval or the need to develop or revise tribal domestic violence codes.

Implementation Themes and Distinctions: The chart below summarizes general themes and distinctions in the individual implementation experiences reported by states and tribes that have adopted a Passport-modeled order of protection.   

Keys to Success

  • Judicial leadership and court support
  • Stakeholder support and ongoing dialogue across systems and disciplines
  • Training for court staff and law enforcement
  • Sustained communication with tribes


Implementation Strategies

  • Phased-in implementation (incremental changes to forms or across types of forms; initial use as a cover sheet pending official forms change)
  • Coordinated timing on state and tribal implementation
  • Mandating use of the form


Challenges to Implementation

  • Legislatively mandated or constrained format for orders of protection
  • Funding for forms revision or case management changes
  • Coordinating changes to case management systems to incorporate new data elements
  • Resistance to process or forms change


Positive System-level or Process Changes Reported

  • Conversion to uniform statewide court forms from varying local court forms
  • Expanded use of Passport-modeled format on other types of protection order forms (e.g., juvenile, criminal, stalking, workplace harassment, individuals at risk, stalking and sexual assault)
  • Development of database warehouses, civil protective order database and/or case management system upgrades


Benefits/Impacts of Implementation

  • Increased coordination between states and tribes
  • Enhanced enforcement of orders across and within jurisdictions
  • Greater recognition and enforcement of tribal orders of protection
  • Strengthened stakeholder relationships and community responses
  • Business process improvements / more efficient administrative court processes



This project was supported by Grant No. 2006-WT-AX-K015 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this publication/program/exhibition are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women.